G8 Science

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  • Last Update September 5, 2020


What students can learn from this course

At the end of Grade 8, learners can describe the factors that affect the motion of an object based on the Laws of Motion. They can differentiate the concept of work as used in science and in layman’s language. They know the factors that affect the transfer of energy, such as temperature difference, and the type (solid, liquid, or gas) of the medium.

Learners can explain how active faults generate earthquakes and how tropical cyclones originate from warm ocean waters. They recognize other members of the solar system.

Learners can explain the behaviour of matter in terms of the particles it is made of. They recognize that ingredients in food and medical products are made up of these particles and are absorbed by the body in the form of ions.

Learners recognize reproduction as a process of cell division resulting in growth of organisms. They have delved deeper into the process of digestion as studied in the lower grades, giving emphasis on proper nutrition for overall wellness. They can participate in activities that protect and conserve economically important species used for food.

Force, Motion, and Energy

Content Standards

Laws of Motion

Newton’s three laws of motion and uniform circular motion

1.1 Law of Inertia

1.2 Law of Acceleration

1.3 Law of Interaction

Work Power and Energy

work using constant force, power, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and elastic potential energy


propagation of sound through solid, liquid, and gas

Lightproperties and characteristics of visible light


heat and temperature, and the effects of heat on the body


current- voltage-resistance relationship, electric power, electric energy, and home circuitry

Learning Competencies

demonstrate how a body responds to changes in motion;

relate the laws of motion to bodies in uniform circular motion;

infer that circular motion requires the application of constant force directed toward the center of the circle;

identify situations in which work is done and in which no work is done;

differentiate potential and kinetic energy;

relate speed and position of object to the amount of energy possessed by a body;

infer how the movement of particles of an object affects the speed of sound through it;

investigates the effect of temperature to speed of sound through fair testing;

demonstrate the existence of the color components of visible light using a prism or diffraction grating;

explain that red is the least bent and violet the most bent according to their wavelengths or frequencies;

differentiate between heat and temperature at the molecular level;

infer the relationship between current and charge;

explain the advantages and disadvantages of series and parallel connections in homes;

differentiate electrical power and electrical energy; and

explain the functions of circuit breakers, fuses, earthing, double insulation, and other safety devices in the home.

Earth and Space

Content Standards

Earthquakes and Faults

1.1 Active and inactive faults

1.2 How movements along faults generate earthquakes

1.3 How earthquakes generate tsunamis

1.4 Earthquake focus and epicenter

1.5 Earthquake intensity and magnitude

1.6 Earthquake preparedness

1.7 How earthquake waves provide information about the interior of the Earth

Understanding Typhoons

2.1 How typhoons develop

2.2 Why the Philippines is prone to typhoons

2.3 How landforms and bodies of water affect typhoons within the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR)

Other members of the Solar System

3.1 Comets

3.2 Meteors

3.3 Asteroids

Learning Competencies

explain how movements along faults generate earthquakes

differentiate the …

2.1 epicenter of an earthquake from its focus;

2.2 intensity of an earthquake from its magnitude;

2.3 active and inactive faults;

demonstrate how underwater earthquakes generate tsunamis;

explain how earthquake waves provide information about the interior of the earth

explain how typhoons develop;

infer why the Philippines is prone to typhoons;

explain how landmasses and bodies of water affect typhoons;

compare and contrast comets, meteors, and asteroids;

predict the appearance of comets based on recorded data of previous appearances; and

explain the regular occurrence of meteor showers


Content Standards

The Particle Nature of Matter

1.1 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

1.2 Atoms and Molecules

Atomic Structure

2.1 Protons

2.2 Neutrons

2.3 Electrons

Periodic Table (PT) of Elements

3.1 Development of the PT

3.2 Arrangement of elements

3.3 Reactive and nonreactive metals

Learning Competencies

explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases based on the particle nature of matter;

explain physical changes in terms of the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules;

determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a particular atom;

trace the development of the periodic table from observations based on similarities in properties of elements; and

use the periodic table to predict the chemical behaviour of an element.

Living Things and their Environment

Content Standards

Structures and Functions: Focus on the Digestive System

1.1 Organs of the digestive system and their interaction with organs of the respiratory, circulatory, and excretory systems

1.2 Changes in food as it undergoes physical and chemical digestion

1.3 Diseases resulting from nutrient deficiency and ingestion of harmful substances

1.4 Prevention, detection, and treatment of diseases of the digestive system

Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

2.1 Stages of mitosis

2.2 Stages of meiosis

2.3 Mendelian Genetics


3.1 Species diversity

3.2 Hierarchical taxonomic system of classification

3.3 Protection and conservation of endangered and economically important species


4.1 Transfer of Energy in Trophic Levels

4.2 Cycling of materials in the ecosystem

4.2.1Water cycle

4.2.2Oxygen-carbon cycle

4.2.3Nitrogen cycle

4.3 Impact of human activities in an ecosystem

Learning competencies

explain ingestion, absorption, assimilation, and excretion;

explain how diseases of the digestive system are prevented, detected, and treated;

identify healthful practices that affect the digestive system;

compare mitosis and meiosis, and their role in the cell-division cycle;

explain the significance of meiosis in maintaining the chromosome number;

predict phenotypic expressions of traits following simple patterns of inheritance;

explain the concept of a species;

classify organisms using the hierarchical taxonomic system;

explain the advantage of high biodiversity in maintaining the stability of an ecosystem;

describe the transfer of energy through the trophic levels;

analyze the roles of organisms in the cycling of materials;

explain how materials cycle in an ecosystem; and

suggest ways to minimize human impact on the environment.

Topics for this course

Force, Motion, and Energy

G8 Force, Motion, and Energy

Earth and Space


Living Things and their Environment