G10 Science

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  • Last Update September 6, 2020


What students can learn after finishing this course

At the end of Grade 10, learners realize that volcanoes and earthquakes occur in the same places in the world and that these are related to plate boundaries. They can demonstrate ways to ensure safety and reduce damage during earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Learners can explain the factors affecting the balance and stability of an object to help them practice appropriate positions and movements to achieve efficiency and safety such as in sports and dancing.

They can analyze situations in which energy is harnessed for human use whereby heat is released, affecting the physical and biological components of the environment. Learners will have completed the study of the entire organism with their deeper study of the excretory and reproductive systems.

They can explain in greater detail how genetic information is passed from parents to offspring, and how diversity of species increases the probability of adaptation and survival in changing environments. Learners can explain the importance of controlling the conditions under which a chemical reaction occurs.

They recognize that cells and tissues of the human body are made up of water, a few kinds of ions, and biomolecules. These biomolecules may also be found in the food they eat.

Earth and Space

Content Standards

Plate Tectonics

1.1 Distribution

1.1.1 volcanoes

1.1.2 earthquake epicenters

1.1.3 mountain ranges

1.2 Plate boundaries

1.3 Processes and landforms along plate boundaries

1.4 Internal structure of the Earth

1.5 Mechanism (possible causes of movement)

1.6 Evidence of plate movement

Learning Competencies

describe the distribution of active volcanoes, earthquake epicenters, and major mountain belts;

describe the different types of plate boundaries;

explain the different processes that occur along the plate boundaries;

describe the internal structure of the Earth;

describe the possible causes of plate movement; and

enumerate the lines of evidence that support plate movement

enumerate the lines of evidence that support plate movement

Force, Motion, and Energy

Content Standards

1. Electromagnetic Spectrum

the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum

2. Light

2.1 Reflection of Light in Mirrors

2.2 Refraction of Light in Lenses

the images formed by the different types of mirrors and lenses

3. Electricity and Magnetism

3.1 Electromagnetic effects

Learning Competencies

compare the relative wavelengths of different forms of electromagnetic waves;

cite examples of practical applications of the different regions of EM waves, such as the use of radio waves in telecommunications; explain the effects of EM radiation on living things and the environment;

predict the qualitative characteristics (orientation, type, and magnification) of  images formed by plane and curved mirrors and lenses;

demonstrate the generation of electricity by movement of a magnet through a coil; and explain the operation of a simple electric motor and generator.

Living Things and their Environment

Content Standards

1. Coordinated Functions of the Reproductive, Endocrine, and Nervous Systems

1. organisms as having feedback mechanisms, which are coordinated by the nervous and endocrine systems

2. how these feedback mechanisms help the organism maintain homeostasis to reproduce and survive

2. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation

1. the information stored in DNA as being used to make proteins

2. how changes in a DNA molecule may cause changes in its product

3. mutations that occur in sex cells as being heritable

3. Biodiversity and Evolution

how evolution through natural selection can result in biodiversity

4. Ecosystems

4.1 Flow of Energy and Matter in Ecosystems

4.2 Biodiversity and Stability

4.3 Population Growth and Carrying Capacity

1. the influence of biodiversity on the stability of ecosystems

2. an ecosystem as being capable of supporting a limited number of organisms

Learning Competencies

describe the parts of the reproductive system and their functions;

explain the role of hormones involved in the female and male reproductive systems; describe the feedback mechanisms involved in regulating processes in the female reproductive system (e.g., menstrual cycle);

describe how the nervous system coordinates and regulates these feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis;

explain how protein is made using information from DNA;

explain how mutations may cause changes in the structure and function of a protein;

explain how fossil records, comparative anatomy, and genetic information provide evidence for evolution; explain the occurrence of evolution;

explain how species diversity increases the probability of adaptation and survival of organisms in changing environments;

explain the relationship between population growth and carrying capacity; and suggest ways to minimize human impact on the environment.


Content Standards

1. Gas Laws

1.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory

1.2 Volume, pressure, and temperature relationship

1.3 Ideal gas law

how gases behave based on the motion and relative distances between gas particles


2.1 Elements present in biomolecules

2.2 Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

the structure of biomolecules, which are made up mostly of a limited number of elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

3. Chemical reactions

the chemical reactions associated with biological and industrial processes affecting life and the environment.

Learning Competencies

investigate the relationship between:

1.1 volume and pressure at constant temperature of a gas;

1.2 volume and temperature at constant pressure of a gas;

1.3 explains these relationships using the kinetic molecular theory;

recognize the major categories of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

apply the principles of conservation of mass to chemical reactions; and

explain how the factors affecting rates of chemical reactions are applied in food preservation and materials production, control of fire, pollution, and corrosion.

Topics for this course

Earth and Space

G10 Earth and Space

Force, Motion, and Energy

Living Things and their Environment