G9 Science

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  • Last Update September 5, 2020


What students can learn from this course

At the end of Grade 9, learners have gained a a deeper understanding of the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems to promote overall health. They have become familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals. Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may arise from such rearrangements.

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at certain times of the year.

Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

Living Things and their Environment

Content Standards

Respiratory and Circulatory Systems Working with the other Organ Systems

how the different structures of the circulatory and respiratory systems work together to

transport oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the different parts of the body

2. the prevention, detection, and treatment of diseases affecting the circulatory and respiratory systems

Heredity: Inheritance and Variation

2.1 Location of genes on chromosomes

2.2 Non-Mendelian inheritance

2.2.1 Incomplete dominance

2.2.2 Sex-linked traits

2.2.3 Multiple alleles

2.3 Multiple genes

how genetic information is organized in genes on chromosomes

2. the different patterns of inheritance

Biodiversity and Evolution

3.1 Causes of Species Extinction

3.1.1 natural

3.1.2 anthropogenic


4.1 Flow of Energy and Matter in Ecosystems

4.1.1 Photosynthesis

4.1.2 Respiration

the structure and function of plant parts and organelles involved in photosynthesis

2. the structure and function of mitochondrion as the main organelle involved in respiration

Learning Competencies

explain how the respiratory and circulatory systems work together to transport nutrients, gases, and other molecules to and from the different parts of the body;

infer how one’s lifestyle can affect the functioning of respiratory and circulatory systems;

describe the location of genes in chromosomes;

explain the different patterns of non-Mendelian inheritance ;

relate species extinction to the failure of populations of organisms to adapt to abrupt changes in the environment; and

differentiate basic features and importance of photosynthesis and respiration.


Content Standards

Electronic Structure of Matter

the development of atomic models that led to the description of the behavior of electrons within atoms

Chemical Bonding

1.1 Ionic and Covalent Bonding

1.2 Metallic Bonding

The Variety of Carbon Compounds

2.1 Carbon Atoms

2.2 Organic Compounds

Mole Concept

3.1 Mass

3.2 Moles

3.3 Percentage Composition of a Compound

Learning Competencies

describe how the Bohr model of the atom improved Rutherford’s atomic model; explain how the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom describes the energies and positions of the electrons

explain the formation of ionic and covalent bonds; recognize different types of compounds (ionic or covalent) based on their properties such as melting point, hardness, polarity, and electrical and thermal conductivity; explain properties of metals in terms of their structure;

explain how ions are formed; explain how the structure of the carbon atom affects the type of bonds it forms; recognize the general classes and uses of organic compounds;

use the mole concept to express mass of substances; and determine the percentage composition of a compound given its chemical formula and vice versa.

Earth and Space

Content Standards


1.1 Type of volcanoes

1.2 Volcanic Eruption

1.3 Energy from volcanoes


2.1 Factors that affect climate

2.2 Global climate phenomenon


3.1 Characteristics of stars

3.2 Arrangement of stars in a group

3.3 Changing position of constellations during the night and at different times of the year

3.4 Beliefs and practices about constellations and astrology

Learning Competencies

differentiate between active and inactive volcanoes;

explain what happens when volcanoes erupt;

illustrate how energy from volcanoes may be tapped for human use;

explain how different factors affect the climate of an area;

describe certain climatic phenomena that occur on a global level;

infer the characteristics of stars based on the characteristics of the Sun;

infer that the arrangement of stars in a group (constellation) does not change;

observe that the position of a constellation changes in the course of a night; and

show which constellations may be observed at different times of the year.

Force,  Motion, and Energy

Content Standards

Motion in Two Dimensions

1. Projectile Motion

1.2.Impulse, Momentum and Impulse

1.3.Conservation of Linear Momentum

Work Power and Energy

2.1 Changes in form of mechanical energy

2.2 Conservation of energy

Heat, Work, and Efficiency

the relationship among heat, work, and efficiency

Electricity and magnetism

4.1 Power generation and energy losses

4.2 Transmission and distribution of electrical energy from power plants to homes

Learning Competencies

describe the horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile; investigate the relationship between the angle of release and the height and range of the projectile;

relate impulse and momentum to collision of objects (e.g., vehicular collision); infer that the total momentum before and after collision is equal; examine effects and predict causes of collision-related damages/injuries;

explain energy transformation in various activities/events (e.g., waterfalls, archery, amusement rides); perform activities to demonstrate conservation of mechanical energy; infer that the total mechanical energy remains the same during any process;

infer that heat transfer can be used to do work, and that work involves the release of heat; explain why machines are never 100-percent efficient;

explain how heat transfer and energy transformation make heat engines like geothermal plants work; and explain how electrical energy is generated, transmitted, and distributed.

Topics for this course

Living Things and their Environment

G9 Living Things and their Environment


Earth and Space

Force, Motion, and Energy